Электротехническая баннерная сеть

The engine with an external supply of heat

The invention concerns to mechanical engineering, in particular to engines with an external supply of heat. Also it is intended for use as a power-plant.

The invention can be used in automotive industry, and also as impellent devices of sea and river transport. Besides the engine can be used as the drive gear of electric generators.

At modern development of technics sharply there is a question on necessity of creation of power settings in which the various sources of thermal energy not polluting an environment and having a low level of noise and vibration can be used. It is possible to attribute the offered engine to such perspective power-plants.

The simplified scheme of the engine is submitted on fig. 1. In the engine timing periods of squeeze and expansion are carried out in different cylinders, accordingly compressive 1 and expansive 2. Cylinders 1 and 2 are connected among themselves through compressive 3 and expansive 4 highways. In compressive highways 3 there is a cooler 5, and in expansive highways 4 there is a heater 6. Compressive the highway 3 is connected to compressive to the cylinder 1 through an outlet valve 7, and to expansive to the cylinder 2 through an inlet valve 8. Expansive the highway 4 is connected to expansive to the cylinder 2 through an outlet valve 9, and to compressive to the cylinder 1 through an inlet valve 10. Buckets of 11 and 12 cylinders 1 and 2 are connected to the shaft of the engine 13 through the gear of transformation of movement 14.

A Fig. 1. The scheme of work DVPT

Structurally the engine contains four expansive and four compressive the cylinder. Cylinders are located serially and in parallel, around of a shaft of the working shaft of the engine. The gear of transformation of back and forth motion is executed as a taper washer, as the drive gear of the aksialno-piston pump. Combustion of fuel occurs in heat-exchange to the chamber. The supply of heat to a working body is carried out through heat-exchange tubes. At squeeze of a working body offtake of heat through heat-exchange tubes and cooling of a working body in a cooler (radiator) is carried out. The quantity of a working body (he can be air), engine made in a working volume, is constant also constant. The working body is under the big pressure, about 40-200 Atm.

Appearance of the engine:

The engine has about the same sizes and weight, as well as the usual gasoline engine.

It is necessary to attribute to features of the offered engine:

High coefficient efficiency. An opportunity of reception high coefficient efficiency, and consequently, and the big profitability is the important feature of the engine. It is connected to full use of temperature drop and pressure in a cycle. However for realization of these opportunities it is necessary to overcome significant constructive both technological difficulties, and the difficulties connected to selection of materials for manufacturing of details of the engine.

Various thermal sources.The external supply of heat used in the engine, allows to apply various thermal sources without any essential changes of a design of the engine. Practically all minerals of fuel from solid up to gaseous can be directly used in the engine. For this purpose the engine equip with a combustion chamber with recuperative heat-exchange for heating an air charge heat of the fulfilled gases.
In cities with high intensity of movement for application on vehicles the engine with the thermal accumulator has the big prospects.
Advantage of the engine consists also that it can work not only on various fuels , but enables to apply various kinds of sources of heat. It means, that work of the engine does not depend on presence of an atmosphere. It can work equally well in the closed space, both on submarines, and on satellites.

Influence on an environment(toxicity, noise, vibrations). It is obvious, that (in usual sense of this concept) it is possible to speak about toxicity of the engine only at use of heat of combustion of fuel.
Sources of allocation of toxic substances are a combustion materials of fuel and its evaporation from a feed system. The engine works on the closed cycle, therefore in its crankcase there is no combustion materials and thereof from a crankcase toxic substances are not allocated.
Evaporation of fuel in an atmosphere in the engine is much less, than at engine with carburetors of internal combustion, as a close fuel system. Practically unique source of toxic substances - a combustion materials leaving in an atmosphere from a combustion chamber.
The basic toxic substances contained in a combustion materials of such fuel, not burned down hydrocarbons are a monoxide carbon CO, CxHy, oxides of nitrogen NOx, aldehydes, soot, oxides of sulfur (at use sulphurous fuels), joints of lead (for ethyl gasolines).
Let's estimate toxicity of the engine on allocation of a monoxide carbon, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and also on smoky. On these of allocation legislative restrictions are available or entered. Toxic products of an incomplete combustion (CO and CxHy) are consequence of lack of oxygen at combustion (at small general or local factors of surplus of air).
Soot in the fulfilled gases appears when there is a thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon fuel (cracking) at heats and lack of oxygen. Combustion chambers of the engine are similar to combustion chambers of combustion turbine gas and steam engines. The combustion procedure in them is stationary. In such conditions it is possible to provide enough high quality air-fuel mixture. Air acting in a combustion chamber, is warmed up in the special preheater by the fulfilled gases. It is obvious, that allocation of toxic substances with the fulfilled gases in the engine depends on factor of surplus of air at combustion and air temperatures on an input in a combustion chamber.
With increase in factor of surplus of air at combustion concentration CO decreases, CxHy and NOx. Consideration of weight of the toxic components allocated at combustion of a unit of quantity of fuel, leads to to the same conclusion. It is necessary to note very small concentration CO, CxHy. Concentration NOx decreases with growth of factor of surplus of air because of more essential influence of drop of temperature in comparison with influence of increase in quantity of free oxygen in a combustion materials. As at increase in factor of surplus of air of efficiency of the engine falls a little, rational value of factor of surplus of air at combustion makes approximately 1,5-1,8.
With rise in temperature of air acting in a combustion chamber, at constant factor of surplus of air the maintenance of products of an incomplete combustion (CO and CxHy) decreases, and concentration NOx grows. Efficiency of the engine also increases with increase of an air temperature on an input in a combustion chamber. Reduction of concentration CO and CxHy speaks improvement of conditions of combustion in hotter air. Increase in concentration NOx it is caused by increase of the maximal temperature of combustion at constant factor of surplus of air. The air temperature on an input in a combustion chamber in the engine reaches 600-800 њ N.
It is necessary to note, that the fulfilled gases of the engine have no smell and practically do not contain some soot.
Above mentioned materials show, that the greatest influence on toxicity of the fulfilled gases of the engine is rendered with oxides of nitrogen. Their allocation can be reduced by influence on conditions of combustion of fuel in the chamber (reduction of the maximal temperature and concentration of oxygen). For kickdown of temperature in a zone of combustion select corresponding parameters of a combustion chamber or apply a recirculation of the fulfilled gases (as well as in internal combustion engines).
The increase in quantity return the fulfilled gases more than 33 % of quantity of acting fresh air is inexpedient, as thus concentration CO, and concentration NOx essentially grows decreases less considerably.
For an estimation of a level of toxicity of the engine in the table are resulted specific allocation of toxic substances in this engine, in a diesel engine, the gas turbine and the engine with carburetor.

Type of the engine

Toxic components in mg / (h.p. ћ n)

 

NOx

CO

CxHy

Engine DVPT 0,1-0,2 0,05-0,2 0,0015-0,009
The turbine gas (with a regenerator) 0,7-2,0 2,0-3,6 0,0120-0,072
A diesel engine 0,4-2,0 0.2-5,0 0,6-12
The engine with carburetor 0,6-2,0 40-100 15-120

From the resulted table follows, what even without acceptance of special measures toxicity of the fulfilled gases of the engine is much lower than toxicity of thermal engines of other types.

A low level of noise and vibration.The basic sources of noise in internal combustion engines are air compressor, the combustion procedure, processes of an intake and release, the gear of a gas distribution, crank and auxiliary gears (because of presence of spacings in the gear gearings, periodically overlapped spacings in movable joints, etc.). In engines internal, and external combustion it is possible to accept generation of noise by auxiliary gears identical, other sources of noise in the engine are absent, therefore the noise level, made by working engine it is, much less, than at an internal combustion engine. External combustion in the engine occurs continuously and has no explosive character owing to what at combustion and release noise is not generated almost.
Besides pressure in cylinders of the engine changes smoothly, practically under the sine wave law. The noise level of this engine on the average on 20-30 decibel is lower, than a diesel engine of the same power.

The charge of a grease oil.In internal combustion engines hit of oil in the cylinder, on the one hand, conducts to burning out of oil, and with another, to its ageing owing to contact with hot gases and details of the engine.
In the offered engine oil practically cannot get in working cavities and besides does not adjoin anywhere neither to hot gases, nor with the heated up details, therefore does not occur burning out, pitch oils. Thereof in the engine disappears necessity for periodic addition of oil. Basically the engine can work during all motor potential with originally filled oil (if it eventually does not change the qualities under influence of an environment) which is cleared only of abrasive particles. For engines big and an average power it is the major economic advantage (cost of a grease oil in 10 times above cost of fuel). For engines of low power it considerably reduces labour input of service.
Hit of oil in working cavities of the engine the extremely undesirable and extremely harmful phenomenon as properties of a working body and as consequence, effective efficiency of the engine change. Therefore in the engine not greased piston rings are applied, and the grease is required only for lubrication of the gear of the drive gear and auxiliary units. As piston sealings in the engine split collars from fluoric plastic or composite materials are applied on the basis of the last.

Reliable and fast start-up of the engine at low temperature. The offered engine having the big pressure of a working body in internal cavities and enough heat tube of a heater, is easily started up at any ambient temperature. Its start-up depends exclusively on reliability from which can be on fire fuel in a combustion chamber. The spark plug which is incorporated with a spray jet into a single whole, practically guarantees start-up of the engine at any parameters of an environment.

Tolerance to a dust of surrounding space.As the offered engine - the engine of external combustion the dust getting in an air charge of a combustion chamber from surrounding space, does not act in cylinders and a crankcase (in the engine fanning of a crankcase is not required). Thereof in the engine there is no additional abrasive deterioration of moving details of the gear of the drive gear. Besides because of small speed of movement of an air charge and the fulfilled gases in recuperative heat-exchange combustion chambers (the preheater of an air charge) and in her pulverize the device corrosion of these details is insignificant.

Work with short-term overcharges.Motor potential of engines is defined by speed of approach of a limit of creep of a material of details of the heater working at a heat. With a pressure boots of a working body in internal cavities of the engine speed of approach of a limit of creep grows. Nevertheless, the short-term overcharges connected to a pressure boots of a working body in internal cavities, insignificantly reduce durability of the engine as the temperature of details of a heater remains constant.
Generally any engine can is guaranteed to maintain a short-term 50-80 %-s' overcharge without appreciable drop of durability.

Heat emission in chilling environment. Owing to presence in the engine of the closed system of circulation of a working body the heat-conducting path practically completely is carried out through a cooler, thus the heat-conducting path should occur at possible lower temperatures. Therefore the quantity of heat removed in chilling water, in the engine approximately in 2 times is more, than in internal combustion engines, at their identical effective efficiencies. Hence, the sizes of a radiator of system of cooling of engines on vehicles turn out more, than at internal combustion engines of the same destination.
In ship engines this feature is not serious lack.

The CRITICAL PARAMETERS of the ENGINE in VOLUME of 1500 sm3

THE NAME OF THE PARAMETER A unit of amendment THE PARAMETER
Number of cylinders

Pieces

8

Power

H.p.

124

Quantity of revolutions

Rev/min

3000

Efficiency

%

52

Factor of a course of the bucket  

2,6

An average pressure of gas in a cycle

Kgs/sm 2

32,0

A working volume of cylinders

Sm 3

1500

Diameter of the engine

Sm

21,5

Length of the engine

Sm

64,5

The maintenance CO

G/km

0,05-0,2

The maintenance CxHy

G/sm

0,0015-0,009

Maintenance NOx

G/km

0,1-0,2

Weight of the engine

Kg

95

A working body  

Helium

Type of the drive gear  

An inclined hollow disk

An arrangement of cylinders  

Drum-type

A source of heat  

The thermal accumulator and a multifuel combustion chamber

Destination of the engine  

Automobile and ship

"The Engine with an external supply of heat". The patent N 2105156 from June, 23 1995 year, the Russian Federation.

"The Engine with an external supply of heat". The patent N 2149275 from May, 31 1999 year, the Russian Federation.

My name: Dmitri Konioukhov
Phone/Fax: +7 343 2161291
Mobile: +7 922 2263772
E-Mail: dvpt@narod.ru


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